This section provides a quick resource for citing references in papers using the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2009).
- Orientation to APA
- Parenthetical Citations
- Where to place citations
- One or two authors
- Three or more authors
- No authors
- Multiple sources in one reference
- Electronic sources
- Reference List
- Government report
- Journal article
- Magazine or newspaper article
- Publication, private organization
- Conference paper or poster session
- Electronic source
- Format the references list
- Format and Headings
- Usage and Style
APA rules for abbreviations state:
Acronyms and abbreviations must be spelled out completely on initial appearance in text.
Use only if abbreviation is conventional, is apt to be familiar, will save considerable space, and will prevent cumbersome repetition.
Avoid beginning a sentence with an acronym or an abbreviation.
For further information, see pages 111-114 in the Publication Manual.
APA rules for capitalization state:
Capitalize all words of four letters or more in titles of books and articles in text.
Do not capitalize names of laws, theories, and hypotheses except for proper nouns.
For more information, see pages 101-104 in the Publication Manual.
APA rules for hyphenation state:
For compound words not in the dictionary, use hyphens for clarity rather than omit them.
Hyphenate compound adjectives that precede the noun they modify:
- role-playing technique
- two-way analysis
- middle-class families
- Do not hyphenate a compound adjective if its meaning is established or it cannot be misread:
- grade point average
- sex role difference
For more information, see pages 97-100 in the Publication Manual.
APA rules for numbers state:
Use figures for numbers 10 and above (12 of the subjects); for numbers above and below 10 grouped for comparison (2 of 16 responses); for numbers representing time, dates, and age (3 years ago, 2 hr 15 min); for numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table (Table 3, Group 3, page 32).
Use words for numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements (eight items, nine pages); for numbers beginning a sentence, title, or heading (Forty-eight percent responded; Ten subjects improved, and 4 subjects did not.).
See pages 99-105 in the Publication Manual.
APA rules for quotations state:
Incorporate quotations of less than 40 words in the text with double quotation marks.
Place quotations of 40 or more words in a double-spaced block, indented five spaces from left margin. Do not use quotation marks with a blocked quotation.
If quoting more than one paragraph, indent the first line of each paragraph five additional spaces from the left margin (for a total of ten spaces).
A page number always immediately follows a quotation, even when the author and date precede it: Lu (1990) found that "several hypotheses were partially supported" (page 48).
See pages 170-171 in the Publication Manual.