Council of Science Editors (CSE) Citations
Create CSE name-year in-text citations
Text citations typically give the last name of
the author or authors and the year of publication within parentheses:
If the quotation or idea you are using comes from a specific page
in your source, you should indicate that:
(Smith 1982, p 73)
If you mention the name of the author in the text, then only the
year belongs in parentheses:
Smith's sequence of studies (1958, 1963a, 1963b, 1967) . . .
Cite different sources by the same author from different years
Place the years in chronological order.
Smith's sequence of studies (1958, 1967) . . . .
Cite different sources by the same author from the same year
Distinguish by lower-case letters, with "a" first, "b" next, and so forth.
Smith's sequence of studies (1958, 1963a, 1963b, 1967). . . .
Cite sources by authors with same last name, same year
Give each author's initials; order alphabetically.
The most recent work (Dawson GL 1986; Dawson WM 1986). . . .
Cite a source with two authors
Give both names, separated by "and":
(Dawson and Briggs 1986)
Cite a source with three or more authors
Give the first author's name followed by "and others" and the year.
If the names of the first author(s) and years are identical in several references, add enough author names to eliminate ambiguity.
(Dawson and others 1987)
(Smith, Jones, and others 1990) (Smith, Jones, Thomas, and others 1990)
Cite multiple sources with a single citation
Sequence from earliest to latest; sequence those published in same year alphabetically by author name; separate studies by semicolon.
A number of studies (Dawson and Briggs 1974; Dawson and Jones 1974; Smith AL 1978; Smith GT 1978; Smith and others 1978; Tyndall and others 1978; Zymgomoski 1978; Brown 1980) have established. . . .
Cite a source cited by your source (Secondary citation)
Secondary citations refer to material that you have not seen in its original form but rather have obtained from another document that cited the original source.
Give the original author's name and year, followed by "cited in" and the source name and year.
The original description (Powell 1858, cited in Forbes 1872). . . .
Cite unpublished material (personal communications, oral presentations)
Give type and source in text.
If the text citation of an unpublished source is in parentheses, make clear that it is not in the reference list (only works available to readers are in the reference list).
In a lecture at Memorial Union, University of Wisconsin-Madison, on April 7, 1995, Smith . . . .> (RS Grant, personal letter to me; unreferenced).