The mechanics of citing sources will vary from style to style, but there are
two primary methods of giving citations: parenthetical (in-text)
references and notes. Although most documentation styles
provide guidelines for both in-text references and notes, each is
generally identified with one or the other.
The citation of materials in footnotes (appearing at the bottom
of the page) and endnotes (appearing at the end of the document,
usually beginning on a separate sheet) is a more traditional method
for identifying original sources. One advantage of giving citations
in notes is that the reader will not be interrupted by sometimes
lengthy references in the text. And now that word processors are
able to manage the formatting of notes automatically, the writer
no longer needs to set aside time to adjust the spacing of every
page to accomodate them.
Unlike the parenthetical-reference styles, note-based styles do
not require the appending of a list of sources. Instead, complete
bibliographic information is provided in the first note that cites
a work; subsequent notes referring to that work will use a shortened
version of the citation. Therefore, the author need not worry about
omitting any works from a list of sources, or accidentally including
any that aren't actually referred to or quoted from.
The style established by the University of Chicago (commonly referred
to as the Chicago style) is the most
commonly used for notes, although the citation-sequence style adopted
by the Council of Science Editors (CBE)
and the Numbered References
style both call for citations to appear in notes.