This section provides a quick resource for citing references in papers using the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2009).
- Orientation to APA
- Parenthetical Citations
- Where to place citations
- One or two authors
- Three or more authors
- No authors
- Multiple sources in one reference
- Electronic sources
- Reference List
- Government report
- Journal article
- Magazine or newspaper article
- Publication, private organization
- Conference paper or poster session
- Electronic source
- Format the references list
- Format and Headings
- Usage and Style
Format the references list
Type the word "References" at the top of a new page, centered.
All entries should be double-spaced, unless your assignment instructs you otherwise.
Although the current Publication Manual advises standard (five spaces, first line) indention for the references list, this is primarily designed to make typesetting easier; the typeset version will have hanging indents (first line flush left, following lines five spaces indent).
If your final version will be turned in for a grade rather than publication, we recommend that you use hanging indents for enhanced readability. We have formatted our sample references list with hanging indents.
In a reference list entry for a book and for the title of a journal article (not the title of the journal, but the title of the article in a journal), capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle, and any proper nouns (the name of a person or a city, for example).
In a reference list entry for the title of a journal, capitalize every significant word (in other words, in the title of a journal, capitalize any word *except* for prepositions or conjunctions ["of," or "in," or "and," for example, should be lower case, unless one it's the first word of the journal's title]). For examples, see the sample reference list entries.
Use a comma to separate
- surnames from initials
- a newspaper title from p. or pp.
- a journal title from volume number
- a volume number from page numbers
- when given, an issue number from page numbers
- (Ed.) from book title
- city of publication from state