The Writing Center @ The University of Wisconsin - Madison

References

The references section bibliography, placed at the end of your paper, is a complete list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper. IEEE references sections are organized according to the order in which sources are cited. In general, IEEE references sections list only those sources cited in the paper.

Contents of this page

Formatting your references

Unlike some other numbered reference lists, references in the IEEE style are numbered according to the order in which they are cited. The author's first initial appears first (B. Smith) in each entry. The first line of each reference entry should be numbered in brackets and be flush left. Papers to be published in an IEEE journal or periodical must meet specific formatting guidelines; please see the IEEE Citation Reference for a quick guide. If you are working on a paper for a course, check with your course instructor for exact formatting expectations.

If you cite multiple publications from a single author, do not group the publications together in the references section unless you cite them together in the body of your paper. All references must be in the order in which they are cited.

If the author's name or the title (or other item) is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear.

Abbreviations

The IEEE style uses many abbreviations in article, chapter, publication, and conference titles. Both the short Citation Reference and longer IEEE Style Manual provide tables of abbreviations for common words in engineering and computing fields.

Sample references

A sample references section follows. Notice the form of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries. (Don't use boxes around each entry, however.) These references appear in the same order as they are listed in the information about formatting below. A few authors have more than one entry, but because their work is not "cited" together, their publications are not grouped in the sample references section.

References

[1] R. Lakes, Viscoelastic Materials. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010.

[2] M. W. Carbon, Nuclear Power: Villain or Victim? 2nd ed. Madison, WI: Pebble Beach Publishers, 2006.

[3] J. J. Duderstadt and G. A. Moses, Intertial Confinement Fusion. New York, NY: Wiley, 1982.

[4] V. Bier et al., Effects of Deregulation on Safety: Implications Drawn from the Aviation, Rail, and United Kingdom Nuclear Power Industries. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

[5] Applications of Cell Immobilisation Biotechnology, V. Nedovic and R. Willaert, Eds. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2005.

[6] J. H. Booske et al., "Plasma Implantation," in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 16, J. G. Webster, Ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1999, 520–527.

[7] R. S. Lakes, ""Composit Biomaterials," in The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed., J. D. Bronzino, Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2000, 40.1–40.7.

[8] Electrical Braking, ABB, Zurich, Switzerland, 2011.

[9] L. Mirkin et al., "Dead-Time Compensation for Systems with Multiple I/O Delays: A Loop Shifting Approach," Technion, Haifa, Israel, Rep. ETR-2010-01, 2010.

[10] M. Morse, J. M. Patel, and W. I. Grosky, "Efficient evaluation of bioinformatics research and applications," International J. of Bioinformatics Research and Applications, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 24–41, 2007.

[11] E. L. Haseltine, V. Lam, J. Yin, and J. B. Rawlings. "Image-guided modeling of virus growth and spread," Bulletin of Math. Biology, vol. 70, no. 6, 2008. doi: 173048

[12] C. Prakash et al., "PGA: using graphs to express and automatically reconcile network policies," in SIGCOMM '15, 2015 © ACM. doi: 10.1145/2785956.2787506

[13] N. Gajawelli et al., "Characterization of the central sulcus in early childhood," presented at Eng. Med. and Biology Conf., Milan, Italy, 2015.

[14] B. Curtin. (1999, July). Internationalization of the File Transfer Protocol, RFC 2640 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2640

[15] N. Hershkowitz et al., "Non-ambipolar radio-frequency plasma electron source and systems and methods for generating electron beams," U.S. Patent 7 875 867, Dec. 3, 2008.

[16] IEEE Standard Critera for Digital Computers in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stations, IEEE Standard 7-4.3.2-2010.

[17] Z. Li, "Signature-Driven Fault Management Metholdologies for Complex Engineering Systems," Ph.D. Dissertation, Indust. Eng., UW-Madison, Madison, WI, 2007.

Book

1 author, first edition:

[1] R. S. Lakes, Viscoelastic Materials. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010.

1 author, later edition

[2] M. W. Carbon, Nuclear Power: Villain or Victim? 2nd ed. Madison, WI: Pebble Beach Publishers, 2006.

2 authors

[3] J. J. Duderstadt and G. A. Moses, Intertial Confinement Fusion. New York, NY: Wiley, 1982.

More than 2 authors

[4] V. Bier et al., Effects of Deregulation on Safety: Implications Drawn from the Aviation, Rail, and United Kingdom Nuclear Power Industries. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

Edited collection

[5] Applications of Cell Immobilisation Biotechnology, V. Nedovic and R. Willaert, Eds. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2005.

Chapter in an edited collection

[6] J. H. Booske et al., "Plasma Implantation," in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 16, J. G. Webster, Ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1999, 520–527.

[7] R. S. Lakes, ""Composit Biomaterials," in The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, 2nd ed., J. D. Bronzino, Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2000, 40.1–40.7.

Handbook

[8] Electrical Braking, ABB, Zurich, Switzerland, 2011.

Report

[9] L. Mirkin et al., "Dead-Time Compensation for Systems with Multiple I/O Delays: A Loop Shifting Approach," Technion, Haifa, Israel, Rep. ETR-2010-01, 2010.

Article

Article in a journal

[10] M. Morse, J. M. Patel, and W. I. Grosky, "Efficient evaluation of bioinformatics research and applications," International J. of Bioinformatics Research and Applications, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 24–41, 2007.

[11] E. L. Haseltine, V. Lam, J. Yin, and J. B. Rawlings. "Image-guided modeling of virus growth and spread," Bulletin of Math. Biology, vol. 70, no. 6, 2008. doi: 173048

[If a journal continues pagination across issues in a volume, you do NOT need to include the issue number.]

[If an article has not been accepted or scheduled for publication, the words "to be published" (without quotation marks) should follow the title of the journal.]

Conference article

[12] C. Prakash et al., "PGA: using graphs to express and automatically reconcile network policies," in SIGCOMM '15, 2015 © ACM. doi: 10.1145/2785956.2787506

Conference presentation

[13] N. Gajawelli et al., "Characterization of the central sulcus in early childhood," presented at Eng. Med. and Biology Conf., Milan, Italy, 2015.

Online source

[14] B. Curtin. (1999, July). Internationalization of the File Transfer Protocol, RFC 2640 [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2640

Patent

[15] N. Hershkowitz et al., "Non-ambipolar radio-frequency plasma electron source and systems and methods for generating electron beams," U.S. Patent 7 875 867, Dec. 3, 2008.

Standard

[16] IEEE Standard Critera for Digital Computers in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stations, IEEE Standard 7-4.3.2-2010.

Thesis or dissertation

[17] Z. Li, "Signature-Driven Fault Management Metholdologies for Complex Engineering Systems," Ph.D. Dissertation, Indust. Eng., UW-Madison, Madison, WI, 2007.