This section provides a quick resource for citing sources in papers using the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook (2016).
- Orientation to MLA
- Creating an MLA works cited page
- Short stories
- Electronic sources
- Government publications, encyclopedia entries
- Personal interviews, films, tv programs, and others
- Using MLA in–text citations
- Abbreviating references to your sources
MLA Documentation Guide
Abbreviating references to your sources
Regarding page numbers
Parenthetical citations do not include the word "page" or "pages" or the abbreviations "p." or "pp."—just the page numbers themselves.
Section or paragraph numbers instead of page numbers
If an electronic source uses paragraph or section numbers instead of page numbers, use the appropriate abbreviation (e.g., "par."); see the MLA Handbook, sec. 1.6.3, for other common academic abbreviations.
Plays, poems, or prose works
When citing plays, poems, or modern prose works that call attention to other divisions, abbreviate that identifying information (e.g., "chap." for "chapter," "sec." for "section").
When a poem is published with line numbers in the margins, cite those instead of page numbers, preceded by the unabbreviated word "line" or "lines," e.g., (lines 8-10). Just use the line numbers without "line" or "lines" in any subsequent references to this work.
Other common abbreviations
Also, in citations, use abbreviations for months (e.g., "Jan." for "January"), publishers' names (e.g., "U of Chicago P" for "University of Chicago Press"), and some famous literary and religious works (e.g., "Esth." for "Esther"); see 1.6.3 of the MLA Handbook for full lists of abbreviations.