This section provides a quick resource for citing sources in papers using the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook (2016).
- Orientation to MLA
- Creating an MLA works cited page
- Short stories
- Electronic sources
- Government publications, encyclopedia entries
- Personal interviews, films, tv programs, and others
- Using MLA in–text citations
- Abbreviating references to your sources
MLA Documentation Guide
Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper
In conjunction with the explanations about structuring and formatting in–text citations detailed here, this page provides example citations for how a range of different source types are correctly referenced according to MLA's citation guidelines.
- Author's name in text
Magny develops this argument (67-69).
- Author's name in reference
This argument has been developed elsewhere (Magny 67-69).
- Quotation found in indirect or "secondhand" source
The philosopher Alain states that "admiration is not pleasure but a kind of attention. . ." (qtd. in Magny 66).
- Material found in indirect source
Alain's words seem to dissociate admiration from pleasure (in Magny 66).
- Two authors' names in reference
The most notorious foreign lobby in Washington is the "Sugar Mafia" (Howe and Trott 134).
- Reference to volume and page in multivolume work
As a painter Andrea was "faultless" (Freedberg 1: 98).
- Reference to whole volume
In his second volume, Freedberg gives an account of Andrea's whole painting career.
- Two works by same author on list of works cited
Frye connects Burgess' A Clockwork Orange to romance tradition (Secular Scripture 110). And while this connection may be surprising given A Clockwork Orange's themes and content, Frye's unique perspective on the nature of genres sheds light on this unusual combination ("Rhetorical Criticism: Theory of Genres").
- Two locations in same source
Dabundo deals with this problem (22, 31).
- Two sources cited
This controversy has been addressed more than once (Dabundo 27; Magny 69).
- Personal interview; name given in text
Parsons addresses the need for physical education teachers to understand the relationship between physical activity and fitness.
- Corporate author
Many different types of organizations in the United States are involved in mediation and dispute resolution (Natl. Inst. for Dispute Resolution).
- Quotation from a play with page numbers
In A Raisin in the Sun, Walter doesn’t hide his disdain for his sister’s attitude towards his mother’s money: “the line between asking and just accepting when the time comes is big and wide—ain’t it!” he levels at Beneatha (Hansberry 37; act 1, scene 1).
- Quotation from a play with division and line numbers
This is made clear by the Duke’s recommendation that the best response to grief is to move on (Othello 1.3.208–209).
- Quotation from a poem
Amy Quan Barry asks piercingly, “What is it to know the absolute value / of negative grace . . .?”
- Quotation from a multi–page poem with line numbers
It is at this point that Eliot first introduces the women in the room “talking of Michelangelo” (line 14).
- Electronic source that uses paragraph numbers
The semiconductor workplace is highly toxic (Ross par. 35).
- Electronic source that uses chapter and section numbers
"Once we start using a tool extensively, it also starts using us" (Rawlins ch. 1, sec. 1).