Using Conjunctive Adverbs

Use conjunctive adverbs (or sentence adverbs) to:

  • indicate a connection between two independent clauses in one sentence
  • link the ideas in two or more sentences
  • show relationships between ideas within an independent clause.

Examples of Conjunctive Adverbs:

  • also
  • however
  • otherwise
  • consequently
  • indeed
  • similarly
  • finally
  • likewise
  • then
  • furthermore
  • moreover
  • therefore
  • hence
  • nevertheless
  • thus
  • nonetheless

How to punctuate conjunctive adverbs

When a conjunctive adverb connects two independent clauses in one sentence, it is preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma.

Tuition increases, say officials, are driven by the universities’ costs; consequently, tuition income typically covers less than 50% of college budgets.

If a conjunctive adverb is used in any other position in a sentence, it is set off by commas.

Nonetheless, some colleges are making efforts to trim budgets and pass along the savings.

Secretary Bennett, however, maintains that more federal aid would only encourage universities to count on the government to meet any increases they might impose.

— All examples taken from “Facing Up to Sticker Shock,” Time (April 20, 1987), 70.