IEEE style, the official style of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, is standard for all IEEE journals and magazines and is frequently used for papers and articles in the fields of engineering and computer science. IEEE uses a Notes-Bibliography system similar to the Chicago/Turabian style; the style requires endnotes and that references be cited numerically in the text.
You can find specific information about citation format and references through the menu to the right. If you need to use IEEE style for a course paper, check with your instructor about formatting expectations. If you are submitting a scholarly paper for publication, follow the journal’s instructions to authors for formatting guidelines. Those submitting to an IEEE publication should see guidelines for the specific journal or magazine and may also refer to the complete IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
If you have been assigned a paper using the IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, And Discussion) format, see our guide to Formatting Science Reports to help you assemble and develop your project.
What to document
- paraphrases and summaries
- information and ideas that are not common knowledge or are not available in a standard reference work
- any borrowed material that might appear to be your own if there were no citation.
Direct quotations are not typically used in the STEM fields. For more information about paraphrasing, see our guide to Quoting and Paraphrasing Sources.
If you would like more information on what needs to be documented, ask your course instructor.